S. Patai, Ed. So far grafting of diazonium salts on metals has been accomplished on iron, cobalt, nickel, platinum, palladium, zinc, copper and gold surfaces. In this study, a new dynamic condensate-circulation still was designed and used for the determination of saturated vapour pressure of pure aniline hydrochloride and VLE and vapour–liquid–solid equilibrium (VLSE) data for water (A)-aniline hydrochloride (B) binary system at 101.3 kPa. HCl, and ArN2+Cl– salts tend to decompose (sometimes explosively) at higher temperatures. There are other similar chemical formulations of products sold as fuchsine, and several dozen other synonyms of this molecule. The VLE data for this system were correlated with a binary non-electrolyte NRTL and an electrolyte-NRTL activity coefficient model respectively, and the results indicated that the use of electrolyte-NRTL gave satisfactory results (the root mean square deviations (RMSD) between predicted and measured are RMSD(ΔT) = 2.5 K, RMSD(ΔyB) = 0.0021).  A Sandmeyer-type hydroxylation is also possible using Cu2O and Cu2+ in water. May emit toxic aniline and chloride fumes under exposure to high temperatures or flame. Since C6H5NH2 has a low Kb value, it’s a weak base. In contrast, arenediazonium salts are more stable, though still dangerously explosive under certain conditions, because SN2 is geometrically impossible and does not occur, while SN1 occurs with much greater difficulty compared to alkanediazonium species due to difficulty in forming the high energy aryl cation and stronger C(sp2)–N bond compared to the C(sp3)–N bond in alkanediazonium compounds. Preferably the process herein described is carried out within the temperature range of 260° C.-300° C. The more specific range 260° C.-270. It is named after the German chemist Ludwig Gattermann.. Usually the nitrous acid is generated in situ (in the same flask) from sodium nitrite and the excess mineral acid (usually aqueous HCl, H2SO4, p-H3CC6H4SO3H, or HBF4): Aqueous solutions of diazonium chloride salts, traditionally prepared from the aniline, sodium nitrite, and hydrochloric acid, are unstable at room temperature and are classically prepared at 0 – 5 °C. Benzenediazonium chloride reacts with compounds containing activated double bonds to produce phenylated products. For convenience in understanding the invention, Table I below gives the chemical analysis and melting range of the aniline hydrochloride product produced at various temperatures: TABLE I ;r0----------------------------300 ....................-------.. 352-380--....----------- ----415-425 ..-.-------------------20 450-40.---------------------Theoretical composition CsHsNHI.HC1 .-------- --------International critical tables -----. The resultant material is usually dark colored and of inferior quality. The conversion is called the Balz-Schiemann reaction. Join thousands of students and gain free access to 46 hours of Chemistry videos that follow the topics your textbook covers. This conversion is illustrated by the coupling of the diazonium salt derived from anthranilic acid to give diphenic acid ((C6H4CO2H)2). A similar conversion is also achieved by treating benzenediazonium chloride with ethanol and copper powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This reaction goes by the German name Phenolverkochung ("cooking down to yield phenols"). In one study, the silicon surface is washed with ammonium hydrogen fluoride leaving it covered with silicon–hydrogen bonds (hydride passivation). The product upon analysis was shown to be 71.22% aniline and 55 27.29% chlorine. Information about your device and internet connection, including your IP address, Browsing and search activity while using Verizon Media websites and apps. Michael Harmata; Organic Mechanisms Reactions, Stereochemistry and Synthesis 3rd Ed, p.246, Reaction sequence: silicon surface reaction with, "The pK a of Brønsted acids controls their reactivity with diazo compounds", "UK CRHF Incident Report – Supersaturated Diazonium salt causes Fatality", "C–F Bond Formation for the Synthesis of Aryl Fluorides", https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/chem.202004568, "Electrografting: a powerful method for surface modification", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diazonium_compound&oldid=987212213, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, reduction by metal cations, most commonly a, anion-induced dediazoniation: a counterion such as iodine gives electron transfer to the diazonium cation forming the aryl radical and an iodine radical, This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 16:58. Instead they are used in situ. So, pKa = 4.87. b) First calculate the moles of each component in the buffer: moles aniline = 0.320 mol/L X 1.20 L = 0.384 mol, moles anilineH+ = 0.111 mol/L X 1.20 L = 0.133 mol, Now, calculate moles NaOH added: 0.377 g / 40.0 g/mol = 0.0094 mol NaOH. It is, of course, not desired to limit the operation of the process to temperatures below this point for the reason that good quality aniline hydrochloride may be produced by contacting the reactants at higher temperatures.  For secondary and tertiary alkanediazonium species, the enthalpic change is calculated to be close to zero or negative, with minimal activation barrier to expulsion of nitrogen. This invention relates to the preparation of a carbon compound and more particularly to the preparation of aniline hydrochloride. Preferably a molecular excess of hydrogen chloride gas is maintained in the mixing or reaction vessel. Other objects are the preparation of aniline hydrochloride in a very desirable physical form, its preparation in a high state of purity and in general an advancement of the art. The process of preparing aniline hydrochloride which comprises reacting aniline vapor and hydrogen chloride gas by bringing them into contact within the temperature range of 260° C. to 3000 C. 4.