The efficient functioning of a healthcare system requires investments and constant improvement to be able to meet the increased demand for high quality services (Chassin, 2013). “We encourage clients to build a 'fit for purpose' supply chain rather than use a 'one size fits all' model,” Steinberg said. Capabilities required for inventory management and control should be clearly defined in user requirements specifications (URSs) across the value chain from production of the drug substance to drug product filling and packaging operations (unit of use) through final packaging, labeling, and delivery to the clinical setting and point of patient. Saldaña, J. 2, pp. These practices could increase the level of waste observed within the PSC, which means that more expired or unwanted medication would have to be disposed of, raising the threat to the environment and human health (Wang et al., 2015). 5, pp. Hwang, Y. and Rho, J. The interviews included a list of open-ended questions, which was divided into three parts: the first part referred to general questions about the study phenomenon and the role of the interviewee therein; the second part included specific questions regarding themes (e.g. Focussing on the PSC, the actual delivery process of medicines is lengthy and has been characterised as a more complex system than exists in other industries (Birkie et al., 2017; Mustaffa and Potter, 2009). Breen and Xie (2015) focussed on the role of pharmacists by exploring their critical management skills needed to perform effectively. However, these approaches remain patchy and methodologically limited (Narayanamurthy et al., 2018; Bamford et al., 2015). (2011) explained, the introduction of nurse prescribing was aimed at improving the access quality and continuity of care. 364-371. 28 No. Cheng, J.L.C., Henisz, W.J., Roth, K. and Swaminathan, A. 73, pp. This will provide detail that should be integrated into standard operating procedures and controls for shipment planning and execution. (2017) and extend the work of previous studies e.g. What is the role of each of the stakeholders in PSC? 3, pp. “If there is one word that sums up the essence of supply chain management, it is transparency,” says Frank Lucero, III, vice president of supply chain for SpenDifference. A comparative analysis of household waste medicines and batteries reverse logistics systems, Evolving functional perspectives within supply chain management, Design of a pharmaceutical supply chain network under uncertainty considering perishability and substitutability of products, Challenges and opportunities in enterprise-wide optimization in the pharmaceutical industry, http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Health Data (2018), www.gov.uk/government/publications/making-best-use-ofmedicines-report-of-a-department-of-health-roundtableevent-hosted-by-the-king-s-fund, www.gov.uk/government/publications/department-of-health-corporate-plan-2013-14/department-of-health-2013-14-corporate-plan, http://ec.europa.eu/health/human-use/legal-framework/index_en.htm, www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Brochure/2014/08/WC500171674.pdf, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Healthcare_personnel_statistics__dentists,_pharmacists_and_physiotherapists, www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/the-uk-pharmaceutical-industry-braces-for-brexit–64926, www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/medical-waste-management-market-1256.html, www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/Health-Spending-Latest-Trends-Brief.pdf, https://data.oecd.org/healthres/health-spending.htm, www.statista.com/statistics/280572/medicine-spending-worldwide, The institutional and regulatory pressures, Difficulties in predicting the exact demand for medicines, Difficulties in predicting the patient mix, The particular characteristics of medicines, • “It is hard to undertake any improvements when you try to minimise the cost of the service that we offer. 2/UK explained that: […] we have to keep in some type of medicines, such as antidotes for poisoning, just in case they are needed. 41 No. Part 2: introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods”, Manual Therapy, Vol. However, there are a number of initiatives that can be undertaken that require less or no financial investment and are still able to improve organisations’ performance such as Lean thinking or Reverse Logistics (Weingart et al., 2012). A group of scholars suggested that the PSC are more complex compared to SCs in other sectors (Greenhalgh et al., 2012). Furthermore, community pharmacies, in both European contexts, believe that the waste within the PSC derives from the healthcare system. The list of the semi-structured interview questions is presented in the Appendix 1. The region-dependent issues observed within the downstream domain of the PSC, which engages with the findings and literature around the UK and Greece contexts. Mustaffa, N.H. and Potter, A. Supply chain models should be developed to identify any risks, constraints, or areas of opportunity for the flow of cash in support of the order-to-cash cycle. During this evolution there are many lessons to be learned, not the least of which is that it is imperative to take into account the nuances of supply chain management that can make the difference between success and failure. While it has adopted a single lens of analysis [that of operations/supply chain management (SCM)], it has consulted with and involved researchers from both schools of pharmacy and schools of management (Zacharia et al., 2014). If you want to perform a quick supply chain performance audit of your organization, consider how well it follows these ten key practices. 617-635. https://doi.org/10.1108/SCM-02-2019-0076. 11 No. Known as orchestration platforms, these independent applications provide enhanced capabilities for command and control at the execution level — while capturing additional data points for operational analysis and review. 33-43. 44 No. As detailed above, this also generates financial and waste issues because providing different medication means that patients need to buy different medicines and that the spare medication is no longer useful. One of the key requirements is additional information to facilitate authentication across the chain of custody, using a combination of serialized labels and track and trace technology. 2, pp. 29-38. 2, pp. 8 Nos 1/2, p. 82. Literature indicates that there is a low and fragmented focus on the PSC in research (Narayana et al., 2014), which is presented in Figure 1. Sound risk management means that critical commodities and ingredients are dual-sourced; that you fully understand the strengths, weaknesses, and capabilities of your suppliers; and that your sourcing arrangements have redundancies in cases of regional disruptions. Guerrini, A., Romano, G., Campedelli, B., Moggi, S. and Leardini, C. (2018), “Public vs private in hospital efficiency: exploring determinants in a competitive environment”, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 1, pp. Although ideally the generation of data should be an automated process, the reality is that there will be a variety of data that is shared using EDI transaction-level files and event and exception data generated by data loggers and tracking devices, as well as data that is captured in the field using handheld devices, log books, or manual data entry. The data analysis demonstrated that in both European contexts, the weak communication and stakeholder synchronisation, undermines the effective performance of the PSC. A UK pharmacist (11/UK) stated that there is often lack of communication between secondary care and primary care, which contributes to the generation of duplication in services. Semi-structured research interviews were conducted to gather exhaustive and comprehensive information to explore the experiences, views and beliefs or motivations of individuals on the medicine delivery process in both Greece and the UK.