"[206], In a 30 March 1968 Ma’ariv interview Defense Minister Moshe Dayan explained: "What do you mean, [the war was] unavoidable? Tunisian President Habib Bourgiba suggested in a speech in Jericho in 1965 that the Arab world should face reality and negotiate with Israel, but this was rejected by the other Arab countries. [182] On the same day, Nasser proclaimed: "The armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria are poised on the borders of Israel ... to face the challenge, while standing behind us are the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the whole Arab nation. "The Israeli Military and the 1967 War", Routledge, 2007, p. 43. Caught up in Arab enthusiasm for military action and encouraged by the lack of response to the closure of the Straits, Egyptian Field Marshal Amer planned for initiating an attack on Israel in late May. Israel’s creation outraged Arab citizens, who sympathized with the hundreds of thousands of Arab Christians and Muslims who lost their homes, livelihoods and hopes for political self-determination. Six-Day War Six-Day War: Selected full-text books and articles. According to Indar Jit Rikhye, Egyptian Foreign Minister Mahmoud Riad told him that the Soviet Union had persuaded Egypt to enter the pact with two ideas in mind: to reduce the chances of a punitive attack on Syria by Israel, and to bring the Syrians under Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser's moderating influence. Speaking to a Mapai party meeting in Jerusalem on May 11 Prime Minister of Israel Levi Eshkol warned that Israel would not hesitate to use air power on the scale of 7 April in response to continued border terrorism, and on the same day Israeli envoy Gideon Rafael presented a letter to the president of the Security Council warning that Israel would "act in self-defense as circumstances warrant". The next day, on the morning of November 13, the Israel Defense Forces invaded Jordan, crossing the border into the West Bank and attacked Es Samu. [209], That the announcement of the blockade of the Strait of Tiran paved the way for war is disputed by Major General Indar Jit Rikhye, military adviser to the United Nations Secretary General, who called the accusation of a blockade "questionable," pointing out that an Israeli-flagged ship had not passed through the straits in two years, and that "The U.A.R. To Israel's surprise, the Jordanian military intervened. ... You did not receive all these weapons in order for you to say that now we are ready and well-equipped to destroy the Egyptian army, so we must do it". "The Israeli Military and the 1967 War", Routledge, 2007, p. 40, Gluska, Ami. The Israeli Air Force was placed on alert. John Quigley, "The Six-Day War and Israeli Self-Defense", p. 192 (Cambridge University Press), Ben-Ami, Shlomo, 2005, "Scars of War; Wounds of Peace - the Israeli-Arab tragedy", Weidenfeld & Nicolson, p. 103, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United Nations Security Council Resolution 228, United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, Controversies relating to the Six-Day War, Israel and the Palestinians in depth, 1967: Six Day War, The Mideast: A Century of Conflict Part 4: The 1967 Six Day War, "Operations Database Details/Information", "The Montreal Gazette - Google News Archive Search", "General's Words Shed a New Light on the Golan", Cooperating Rivals: The Riparian Politics of the Jordan River Basin, http://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80858e/80858E0m.htm, "Appendix C: Historical review of the political riparian issues in the development of the Jordan River and basin management", "Memorandum From the President's Special Assistant (Rostow) to President Johnson", http://www.theisraelproject.org/site/c.hsJPK0PIJpH/b.2715623/k.16D2/Breakdown_of_Attacks_Against_Israel_Leading_up_to_the_SixDay_War.htm, "OpenDocument Yearbook of the United Nations 1967", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hrjTvWZkgY. Start studying Causes of the 1967 Six Day War. [180], On June 3, days before the war, Egypt flew to Amman two battalions of commandos tasked with infiltrating Israel's borders and engaging in attacks and bombings so as to draw IDF into a Jordanian front and ease the pressure on the Egyptians. The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מִלְחֶמֶת שֵׁשֶׁת הַיָּמִים‎, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب 1967, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Jordan, Syria, and Egypt. Nasser began massing his troops in the Sinai Peninsula on Israel's border (May 16), expelled the UNEF force from Gaza and Sinai (May 19) and took up UNEF positions at Sharm el-Sheikh, overlooking the Straits of Tiran. [22] In May 1967, Nasser received false reports from the Soviet Union that Israel was massing on the Syrian border. [8][9][10] Despite the overwhelming support for Resolution 1000 in the UN General Assembly, Israel refused to allow UNEF forces onto its territory. Both Israel and Egypt applied the lessons they had learned in the earlier affair. "As the Shock Wears Off; Arab World, Appraising Its Defeat, is Split as it Gropes for Strategy", 1347 Security Council MEETING : 5 June 1967, Developments in the Middle East Peace Process 1991–2000, The three soldiers - background to that photograph, Six Day War Personal recollections & Timeline. "[181], At the end of May 1967, Jordanian forces were given to the command of an Egyptian general, Abdul Munim Riad. In 1964, Israel began drawing water from the Jordan River for its National Water Carrier, in accordance with the Johnston Plan, reducing the flow that reached Hashemite territory to the Johnston Plan allocation. [87] At the same time Israel was planning, approving and executing the provocations of Syria along the DMZ referred to by Dayan. He had received humiliating rebukes for Egypt's lack of action after the recent Israeli attacks on Jordan and Syria in April 1967. The British cabinet later stated that there was a new balance of power in the Middle East, led by the United Arab Republic, that was A) to the detriment of Israel and the Western powers and B) something Israel was going to have to learn to live with. [85] In January 1967 the Israeli Minister of Health, Yisrael Barzilai, warned that Egypt's commitment to Syria under their mutual defense pact "could escalate the situation and nobody foresee how it will end". The Six Day War : Causes And Effects 1909 Words | 8 Pages. King Hussein, the Hashemite ruler, was in a bind: he did not want to appear as cooperating with Israel in light of the delicate relationship of his government with the majority Palestinian population in his kingdom, and his success in preventing such raids was only partial. Tension escalated, with both sides' armies mobilising. On June 1, Israel formed a National Unity Government by widening its cabinet, and on June 4 the decision was made to go to war. [126] The Permanent Representative of Egypt then informed U Thant that the Egyptian government had decided to terminate UNEF's presence in the Sinai and the Gaza Strip, and requested steps that would withdraw the force as soon as possible. Nasser then stationed Egyptian troops in the Sinai and blockaded the Straits of Tiran, which gave Israel access to Red Sea shipping lanes. "The Israeli Military and the 1967 War", Routledge, 2007, Table 4, p. 48. According to the Israeli government, 50 Jordanians were killed, but the true number was never disclosed by the Jordanians, in order to keep up morale and confidence in King Hussein's regime. 'Warning by Israelis Stresses Air Power', Benny Morris Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001. As soon as he arrived, he was given new instructions in a cable from the Israeli government. Angry Palestinian citizens of Jordan did criticize King Hussein heavily for failing to protect them. cit., Kindle Locations 495-497, Quigley, 2012, op.cit., Kindle location 508, Quigley, 2012, op.cit., Kindle locations 504-507. But despite Israeli jubilation, the war did not settle the issue between Israel and its neighbours and the Palestinians. The next morning, Israel launched Operation Focus, a large-scale surprise air strike that launched the Six-Day War. Lavoy, Peter R.; Sagan, Scott Douglas & Wirtz, James J. Following an approach from United States Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Eugene Rostow to allow time for the negotiation of a nonviolent solution, Israel agreed to a delay of ten days to two weeks.