About 60 species in North America north of Mexico. Adults are dark brown with two red-orange stripes and feed on grasses, weeds, and holly. Read our, Organic Controls for Common Strawberry Pests, Learn to Identify and Eliminate Aphids on Your Indoor Plants, How to Identify, Treat, and Prevent Curly Top, Identifying and Controlling Cucumber Beetles and Their Larva, 7 Flower Garden Pests That Can Ruin Your Hard Work, How to Identify, Treat, and Prevent Aster Yellows, How to Get Rid of Common Houseplant Pests, How to Control Garden Damage From Grasshoppers, How to Control Japanese Beetles in Your Lawn and Garden, How to Control and Get Rid of Thrips in Your Garden. Members of the family Clastopteridae have their wings modified to form false heads at the tail end, an antipredator adaptation. University of Minnesota Extension, Marie Iannotti is an author, photographer, and speaker with 27 years of experience as a Cornell Cooperative Extension Horticulture Educator and Master Gardener, The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. As the nymphs feed, their house of bubbles offers protection from predators and parasites. The resulting foam has the consistency of beaten egg whites. The liquid is actually secreted from the other end. After all, what kind of creature would spit on your plants? We facilitate and provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about these resources. Adults can be distinguished from the quite similar-looking leafhoppers by the spine arrangement on the hind pair of tibiae (analagous to "shins"): spittlebugs have 1 or 2 stout spines on that segment, while leafhoppers have 1 or more. The eggs overwinter. They usually feed on grasses, goldenrods, or other nonwoody plants, but some species are found on trees. Adult froghoppers jump from plant to plant; some species can jump up to 70 cm vertically: a more impressive performance relative to body weight than fleas. Name "froghopper" refers to the frog-shaped head of this insect and its ability to jump. In the meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius), the green nymphs have dark antennae. They are a wingless, green creature at this point and are almost invisible inside the spittle. The oldest froghoppers are known from the Early Jurassic. Although spittlebug nymphs do feed on plant sap, the damage is minimal, and populations are usually small, so no pesticide is necessary. One last thought. It tempers the effects of hot and cool breezes, keeps their small, fragile bodies moist, and protects them from the sun’s glare. Further details may exist on the, Two bacteria allow spittlebugs to thrive on low-nutrient meals, "Jumping performance of froghopper insects", "Taxonomic review and phylogenetic inference elucidate the evolutionary history of Mesozoic Procercopidae, with new data from the Cretaceous Jehol Biota of NE China (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha)", "A new fossil cercopoid from the middle Jurassic Ordos and Jiyuan basins, northern China (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha)", List of all Cercopoidea species from COOL database by A Soulier-Perkins in the 2008 Catalogue of Life, DrMetcalf: a resource on cicadas, leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittlebugs, and treehoppers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Froghopper&oldid=982573322, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 00:16. As spittlebug nymphs produce their viscous fluid, they draw air into a cavity of the abdomen, then pump it into the fluid. In North America north of Mexico, there are about 60 species in the two families of so-called spittlebugs, but only 2 species in the family called "froghoppers.". Froghopper is herbivore (plant-eater). The foam is not harmful to plants, but the feeding of nymphs may damage plants. Spittlebugs in Home Gardens. At the same time, the foam also helps keep them comfortable. It hides the nymph from the view of predators and parasites, and it insulates against heat and cold, thus providing thermal control and also moisture control; without the foam, the insect would quickly dry up. The Common Froghopper is found in a variety of habitats, but it is perhaps most abundant on waste ground and road-side verges where its weedy herbaceous food plants, such as thistles and mugwort, are often plentiful. When the nymphs originally hatch in early spring, they will attach themselves to a plant and begin feeding. The diamondback spittlebug (Lepyronia quadrangularis) closely resembles 3 others in its genus in North America. Nymphal form of spittlebug encased in foam for protection and moisture. [6] The genus Qibinius the Middle Jurassic Yanan Formation of China mixes characters of both families and cannot be assigned to either. Spittlebug nymphs turn the liquid secretion into bubbles by moving or pumping their bodies. Once the frothy bubbles have formed, spittlebugs use their hind legs to cover themselves with the froth. Most people notice froghoppers and spittlebugs in open, grassy areas. Upon hatching, they might resemble aphids. Young trees, strawberries, and members of the bean family, such as clover and alfalfa, are especially prone to infestations. It not only conceals them, but also functions as a sticky tanglefoot to deter smaller enemies. The froghoppers, or the superfamily Cercopoidea, are a group of hemipteran insects in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha. The adult dogwood spittlebug (Clastoptera proteus) has distinctive black and yellow markings. The nymphs of spittlebugs and froghoppers are famous for hiding in small foamy masses of fluid. Nymphs produce the foam from fluid excreted from the anus — it’s mostly plant sap — that joins with thicker substances from nearby glands. But these insects all look very similar, and all build bubble shelters. This group is a superfamily (Cercopoidea) that comprises three families, of of which may be called spittlebugs. If you should have a severe infestation, remove plant debris in the fall and till the soil to reduce egg population. Spittlebug eggs are laid in late summer and are left to overwinter on plant debris. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Call 1-800-392-1111 to report poaching and arson, Aphrophoridae, Clastopteridae, and Cercopidae, in superfamily Cercopoidea. They leap from plant to plant, seldom flying. It’s a very clever cover for the spittlebug. The adults mate, and the females lay eggs inside plant stems, behind leaf sheaths, or in other protective plant material. Some species have multiple broods a year, others just one. Froghopper can jump 27 inches into the air. Immature forms conceal themselves in bubble nests. (in Missouri) (formerly Tibicen), Phymata spp. Considering how fast these insects can jump away, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals would seem to have their dinner disappear into thin air. They’ll be gone in a few weeks anyway. The “honeydew” of aphids is similar to the spittle of spittlebugs. The spitty secretions of these insects are not harmful to plants, but the feeding of the nymphs may damage garden plants. 2013-05-08 13:06:15 2013-05-08 13:06:15. frogs. [7] The genus Cercopion from the Aptian aged Crato Formation of Brazil appears to be derived from the Procerocopidae and closely related to the crown group.